Welcome from the Energy Program Office
Journal of Energy Management Highlights
By addressing a wide variety of topic areas each quarter, we’ll be able more quickly to deliver ideation that will make our industry better. Please enjoy the review of the journal highlights and consider submitting an idea for a future release to : email@example.com.
SCTE launched its very first Journal of Energy Management setting the bar high for timely and thought-provoking information and idea sharing. Each year SCTE looks to publish two journals focused on energy efficiency and new thoughts to powering our networks.
The October 2016 edition of the Journal focuses on cost saving opportunities and various energy saving methodologies, including:
- financial considerations and risks of off-site alternative energy procurement strategies
- assessment of changing utility rate structures which could provide financial opportunities for cable operators
- decoding the IEEE 1366 standard that impacts cable’s utility partners
- measuring HVAC, lighting, energy generation and storage at the critical facility level
- the impact of batteries on the Internet of Things (IoT)
- HFC capacity planning and the impact of evolving architectures on cable plant power
- deep dive into energy demands of network routers
- examination of energy storage with up and coming battery technologies.
We hope that the selected papers spark innovative ideas to further our collaboration to mature the industry’s operational practices, standards and technology solutions.
From Giving HFC a Green Thumb by John Ulm
This April 2017 edition of the Journal focuses on cost saving opportunities for critical facilities by way of a benchmarking tool analysis and the second paper examines climate management approaches and use of fiber to impact positive energy change in critical facilities. Finally, a utility sector, multi-year strategic plan report (as it pertains to road mapping and availability of commercial power) has been included.
From Improving the Efficiency of Cooling in the Headend by Jim Farmer and David Kozischek
In this August issue, fleet, energy procurement, increasing critical facility resiliency through renewable energy microgrids, and consideration of managing energy in the age of Internet of Things (IoT) are presented.
From Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids by Kate Anderson
In this December 2017 issue, we continue the discussion on how to strategically approach procurement of energy, help address the security of energy as well as affordability. We examine how to approach adopting the operational practices and standards that the Energy Management Subcommittee has published to date. Next, a keen look at how electric vehicles could play a role in rapidly reducing emissions and costs for the cable industry is presented. Finally, a thought provoking letter to the editor outlines the concept and role of computational fluid dynamics in critical facilities.
From Computational Fluid Dynamics Air Flow Modeling – Can it improve cooling in your facilities? By EMS Climate Technology Optimization Working Group
The opening issue of the 2018 Journal of Energy Management has three articles for your review. First is the concept of an infrastructure headway energy opportunity which looks at ways to address the prep and preservation of the critical space headroom. Next, research findings are presented that illustrate various causes of critical facility outages, especially slack of power. We conclude with a follow-up study about using computational fluid dynamics modeling to assess cooling in the critical facility.
From The Tech Refresh and the Nega-Watt: Common Sense Powering at Comcast by Ben Strunk
Within this first 2019 Journal of Energy Management we evaluate some strategies and technologies including Grid over the Internet of Things (GoIoT) demonstrating two distinct use cases for cable’s participation in GoIoT. Next, research regarding the reduction of RF signal loading of a cable network in times of low traffic is presented. Another Outside Plant (OSP) energy cost reduction strategy includes utilizing assets such as battery storage that traditionally were only used for back-up power purposes when the utility grid failed. And finally, we cover how to right size HVAC units by utilizing standards and various ratios to evaluate both heat load and comfort.
From Grid Over The Internet Of Things™ by Robert Cruickshank III, PhD
In this September 2019 important issue of the SCTE Journal of Energy Management our authors evaluate the strategy of microgrids for cable, managing incorporation of renewable power with little to no capital expense, advantages of phase change materials to combat cooling costs, access network advanced design using artificial intelligence, and airflow management to optimize cooling needs.
Impact of Cable’s 10G Program on Energy Considered for Future Program Focus Journal V4 N2 2019 feature. By Rajesh Abbi and Sudheer Dharanikota
From Enhancing the Customer Experience Utilizing Modular and Scalable Power Delivery Systems by SCTE Microgrid Working Group
Our March 2020 issue presents four articles. The first is centered on powering 10G asking how we will ensure that bandwidth expansion and next generation architecture does not stress power availability and reliability. Next, a primer and cost analysis on what flywheel technology can do for alternate approaches to traditional battery energy storage. The third paper will address the 30% of critical facility power load: airflow and cooling optimization. The last paper is intended for the cable industry energy procurement professionals. This paper analyzes the impacts loads have on the utility grid and how to target optimal rates.
From Flywheel Energy Storage Replacement For Lead - Acid Batteries in CATV Network Stand - by William Bauer
Three articles are available in our September 2020 edition. The first examines precision air vs. comfort cooling as it relates to critical facilities. Next, we present a method for approaching how cable operators can move forward with fleet electrification. The third paper examines a total cost of ownership (TCO) framework for determining the best method for delivering the 10G networks. Finally, in a letter to the editors, the importance of managing company diesel fuel supply chain as it relates to our targeted maximum availability of service is discussed.
From Drive to Sustainability: Electric Fleets Contribution Toward Zero-Emission Goals and Operational Savings by Paul Stith
SCTE Standards Journal consolidates into one package with multiple topics including Energy Management.
Network Power Considerations for 10G Enhancements
Rob Anderson of EnerSys discusses assuring the availability of additional, reliable, and intelligent power for the near future 10G-capable access network is both essential and challenging since network architectures are evolving and 10G enabling technologies are still being developed . In this paper we review two specific access network upgrades through the lens of network power. First, distributed access architecture (DAA) optical nodes (ONs) bring higher bandwidth closer to consumers. Remote PHY (R-PHY) nodes are one example of a DAA implementation . R-PHY nodes bring new powering challenges to the access network including the need for high quality, resilient power. Second, recent operator investments in CBRS RF spectrum are good indicators that access network powered small cell radio area networks (RANs) will soon be scaling up. New radio installations come with new power level and voltage reach challenges for the access network.
Achieve Power Savings in a DOCSIS 4.0 network with a Distributed Gain Architecture
Jan Ariesen of Technetix discusses one of the main elements of the new DOCSIS 4.0 specification: the ability to expand network capacity to 1.8 GHz, and nearly double the capacity of many current HFC networks. What remains a subject of debate is the best way to meet the specification and how much will it cost? The primary options include extended spectrum DOCSIS (ESD) and full duplex DOCSIS (FDX). Which one do you choose; which is the most futureproof, flexible, and reliable option that will give you more capacity in your network? How much will the chosen solution cost in labor/truck rolls for re-spacing amplifiers, and most importantly - how much power will it use?
Optimization of Electric Load Shaping, Sensing, and Forecasting A Guide to Operational Savings and New Business Models
Dr Robert Cruickshank III of GRIDIoT® and other co-authors discusses building more power generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure hasn’t resulted in a more resilient grid or more reliable power—but it has raised the cost of electricity. To reliably support broadband operations and enable new business models, what's needed are new solutions that monitor the grid and enable the demand for electricity to be shifted in time to follow the cleanest and lowest-cost supply. Time-shifting creates economic value by discouraging consumption at certain times and encouraging consumption at other times, thereby creating virtual power plants that optimize and extend the life of existing grid assets. Furthermore, time-shifting reverses the supply-follows-demand relationship by allowing flexible demand, such as battery storage, to anticipate and follow supply. The goal of this work is to empower the broadband industry with software-centric technologies that increase network reliability and reduce the cost of broadband operations while spearheading profitable business models that scale quickly to modernize the global electric utility ecosystem while reducing harmful heat and carbon emissions.
This volume contains a number of excellent articles in realms other than energy management topics.
Towards Negative Emissions in Cable Networks
Circonica, Liberty Global and SCTE collaborated on this paper featuring fuel cell advantages.
Fuel cells could play a big role either in a standalone or hybrid combination with other technologies to solve the energy challenges of today. The first commercial use of fuel cells following the invention of the hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell was in 1932. However, since NASA’s use of alkaline fuel cells in the mid-1960s to generate power for satellites and space capsules, fuel cells have been widely used in many other applications. They are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial, and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also used to power transports, including forklifts, automobiles, buses, boats, motorcycles, and submarines. Although fuel cells were invented in 1838 and are the most efficient continuous power source, three factors have impeded widespread use: the abundance of cheap fossil fuels for internal combustion engines (ICEs); the high price tag of fuel cells; and the cost and safety of hydrogen as fuel. However, attention has turned to green hydrogen and fuel cells yet again to help tackle climate change, the most pressing issue of the century humankind faces.
The Sustainable Future Of Energy Storage For Cooling, Peak Power Balancing And Renewable Energy The Use Of Phase Change Materials (PCM)
Energy Cool Aps and Tizzon wrote a piece on PCM, highlighting advantages of the technology.
The triple cool approach has been developed with a focus on optimal performance and reliability, reducing maintenance to a minimum and the lowest possible energy consumption.
The entire cooling system components are completely recyclable, PCM is cradle to cradle, and the products have a very long lifetime, something that has been proven over the last 10 years.
PCM has at lifetime of least 25+ years, whereas the cooling units (air handling units AHU) have a lifetime of 10+ years.
HFC Network Powering Using Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries History, Science, Comparable Attributes and Use Cases
Lindsay Broadband Inc., covered a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, or LFP) powering solution to help achieve today’s expanded network powering objectives.
Based on a highly stable chemistry, LFP batteries offer premium performance while being environmentally friendly. They are safe, with no corrosive substances or fire and explosion hazards. They use fewer materials and contain no rare earth metals or groundwater contaminating compounds, avoiding the drawbacks of VRLA and other leading lithium battery technologies, such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC). They allow network operators to maximize run-time with minimal battery counts and minimal maintenance. In this paper, we will provide additional background on LFP batteries and chemistry, review their attributes, and discuss three use cases.
Pathway to a Greener, More Energy Efficient Cable Access Network
Intel’s journal paper discusses the hardware capabilities present on the latest generations of x86 servers (namely C-states and P-states) and new techniques available to flawlessly match the network load at the lowest possible power for these types of data plane applications. It will also address some common misconceptions regarding the usage of some of these capabilities and techniques. In doing so, the paper aims to set out a pathway towards a greener and more energy efficient vCMTS. Through further exploration and detailed lab benchmarking, quantifiable benefits for different system/test configurations will provide actionable recommendations for operators and their vendors creating and deploying NFV solutions in the edge or access network.
Estimating the Energy Usage of Streaming Delivery of Pay-TV Video Services
A Report Developed for the U.S. Set-Top Box Voluntary Agreement Steering Committee
Saras Partners’ paper compares the energy usage associated with watching streaming linear or recorded video in a typical US home to watching the same content delivered via a set-top box (STB) or digital video recorder (DVR). The analysis does not estimate total energy usage, but rather focuses on usage in hardware and software elements in the streaming/cloud-based infrastructure within the service providers’ systems that are incrementally different to the legacy STB and DVR delivery methods. The analysis is also incremental to the separate purchase of Internet access service, which is typical of households that elect streaming options to watch video service.
An Emerging Alternative for Meeting Zero Emissions Goals
Fuel Cell EVs and Hydrogen Fueling
Letter to the Editor prepared for SCTE by Seth S Terry, CEO, New Day Hydrogen
Increasingly, major corporations including those in cable and telecommunications face pressure to develop zero-emissions goals. Today, this pressure derives primarily from investor engagement by way of institutional leaders such as BlackRock, State Street, and Vanguard. However, the specter of regulation also looms large from agencies like the US Securities Exchange Commission via its proposed climate disclosure rule. As a consequence, discussions over reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have long since entered the board room. And with transportation now accounting for the largest portion of GHG emissions in the US, corporate fleets represent an obvious place to look for cuts. For many, the obvious answer for these emission reductions is to start the transition to battery electric vehicles (BEVs). However, though doing so may prove relatively easy for light-duty vehicles with devoted overnight space for charging, fleets of heavier-duty vehicles will struggle operationally with the dwell time required to replenish range. For this reason, fleet owners may do well to consider an alternative to BEVs that can simultaneously meet zero-emissions goals while providing the convenience of fueling: fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). And, although this type of electric vehicle (EV) is only beginning to enter the market, many expect FCEVs soon to become the dominant choice of heavier-duty fleets.
Sustainable Supply Chain Assessment for Cable Ops
A Report Developed for SCTE’s Cable Operator Member Companies to Help Improve Sustainability Profiles
The objective of this Villanova RISE study is to review and develop a generic ‘green’ supply chain model for SCTE’s cable operator member companies to help improve their sustainability profiles. This assessment includes a review of baseline inventory and a highlight of relevant supply chain best practices, such as supplier management, codes of conduct, key performance indicators (KPIs), and strategic partnerships for member companies.
Reflecting on Energy and Broadband Thoughts from Colorado 2022
Letter to the Editor prepared for SCTE
Derek DiGiacomo, Senior Director, Energy Management Programs and Business Continuity SCTE reflects upon the Fall 2022 EMS plenary and Energy 20/20 meeting.
It was a cold snowy day in Colorado, and I made my way from the local hotel to the CableLabs office as the sun was coming up. It was Day Two of our energy meetings hosted at headquarters. This meeting felt different from the April 2022 meeting that was so close to the pandemic unofficially winding down. This November meeting had a good feel: more ease in the conversation, more comfort being present with attendees; and the program was expanded to a full day.
Electric Vehicle Workplace Transition Plan for an SCTE Member Company
The transportation sector is one of the major sources of anthropogenic U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as it accounted for 28% of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2021. The majority of GHG emissions from transportation are carbon dioxide (CO2) resulting from the combustion of petroleum-based products, such as gasoline and diesel fuel in internal combustion engines. The largest sources of GHG emissions are light-duty vehicles (37%), and medium-heavy-duty vehicles (23%), and the remainder are passenger cars, aircraft, rail, pipelines, ships, and boats.
One of the member companies of SCTE has set a climate goal, which it hopes to achieve partly by gradually transitioning its operating fleet to electric vehicles. The goal of this study has been to assess the company’s current inventory of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and to develop a fleet-level transition strategy.
Climate Control Automation for Critical Facilities: Supporting an “Always On” Network Through Automation
Written by John Dolan, Arnold Murphy, Ken Nickel, and Tom Hurley
As reliance on digital communications increases, new methods of managing critical facilities are required to better respond to outside influences. Keeping a critical facility always available requires a reliable power supply and adequate cooling. When a thermal event arises, such as an outside climate issue or an internal mechanical problem that could impact operations, an automation system can notify and respond accordingly to prevent or lessen the impact of a crisis condition. Not having an effective system can result in network downtime and extended service outages.
Automation offers a number of significant benefits that will improve site operation, reduce costs and enable better use of the facilities resources.